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|Pre-production||This is also called “the silent period,” when the student takes in the new language but does not speak it. This period often lasts six weeks or longer, depending on the individual.|
|Early production||The individual begins to speak using short words and sentences, but the emphasis is still on listening and absorbing the new language. There will be many errors in the early production stage.|
|Speech Emergent||Speech becomes more frequent, words and sentences are longer, but the individual still relies heavily on context clues and familiar topics. Vocabulary continues to increase and errors begin to decrease, especially in common or repeated interactions.|
|Beginning Fluency||Speech is fairly fluent in social situations with minimal errors. New contexts and academic language are challenging and the individual will struggle to express themselves due to gaps in vocabulary and appropriate phrases.|
|Intermediate Fluency||Communicating in the second language is fluent, especially in social language situations. The individual is able to speak almost fluently in new situations or in academic areas, but there will be gaps in vocabulary knowledge and some unknown expressions. There are very few errors, and the individual is able to demonstrate higher order thinking skills in the second language such as offering an opinion or analyzing a problem.|
|Advanced Fluency||The individual communicates fluently in all contexts and can maneuver successfully in new contexts and when exposed to new academic information. At this stage, the individual may still have an accent and use idiomatic expressions incorrectly at times, but the individual is essentially fluent and comfortable communicating in the second language.|
How long does it take for a language learner to go through these stages? Just as in any other learning situation, it depends on the individual. One of the major contributors to accelerated second language learning is the strength of first language skills. Language researchers such as Jim Cummins, Catherine Snow, Lily Wong Filmore and Stephen Krashen have studied this topic in a variety of ways for many years. The general consensus is that it takes between five to seven years for an individual to achieve advanced fluency. This generally applies to individuals who have strong first language and literacy skills. If an individual has not fully developed first language and literacy skills, it may take between seven to ten years to reach advanced fluency. It is very important to note that every ELL student comes with his or her own unique language and education background, and this will have an impact on their English learning process.
It is also important to keep in mind that the understood goal for American ELL students is Advanced Fluency, which includes fluency in academic contexts as well as social contexts. Teachers often get frustrated when ELL students appear to be fluent because they have strong social English skills, but then they do not participate well in academic projects and discussions. Teachers who are aware of ELL students’ need to develop academic language fluency in English will be much better prepared to assist those students in becoming academically successful. (Learn more about academic language in Colorín Colorado’s academic language resource section.)
To All the Boys I’ve Loved Before
By Jenny Han
MAJOR MOTION PICTURE COMING TO NETFLIX AUGUST 17, 2018!
Lara Jean’s love life gets complicated in this New York Times bestselling “lovely, lighthearted romance” (SLJ) from the New York Times bestselling author of The Summer I Turned Pretty series.
What if all the crushes you ever had found out how you felt about them…all at once?
Sixteen-year-old Lara Jean Song keeps her love letters in a hatbox her mother gave her. They aren’t love letters that anyone else wrote for her; these are ones she’s written. One for every boy she’s ever loved—five in all. When she writes, she pours out her heart and soul and says all the things she would never say in real life, because her letters are for her eyes only. Until the day her secret letters are mailed, and suddenly, Lara Jean’s love life goes from imaginary to out of control.
If you can move beyond the boring basics when you’re asked “What do you do?”, you’ll set yourself up for new relationships, opportunities and revelations, says introduction expert Joanna Bloor. Mingling at a work event inevitably means being asked the question “What do you do?” over and over again. After years of repetition and conditioning,…
I give English one to one tutoring classes as well as ONLINE English Courses.
I realize what YOU need to succeed in English. I know the essential skills you need to grow to suit an active communicator in English.
My classes are for students who want to use a most proficient approach to get fluent in English fast by practicing English Skills. Training is a subconscious process and is faster than conscious learning.
Being capable of putting across effectively is the most important of all life skills.
Communication is merely the act of transferring information from one place to another, whether this is vocal, written, visually or non-verbally (using body language, gestures and the tone and pitch of the voice).
How well this information can be transmitted and received is a measure of how good our communication skills are.
Training your English communication skills can facilitate all aspects of your life, from your professional spirit to social gatherings and everything in between.
Conventional methods of learning English exemplify passive learning with a limited success rate. I firmly trust in Active Learning of English Skills which is much more efficient than passive learning.
These are the primary disadvantages of passive English learning
- The major weakness of passive education is that it splits the language into different components – reading, writing, listening, grammar, and pronunciation – which you try to learn separately.
- When learners are not actively involved in the class, they continue to think in their native language. Whatever the instructor explains to them, they try to interpret it in their mother tongue. It becomes nearly impossible to process the information intuitively or spontaneously.
- Because learners aren’t taught to think in English, they are unable to communicate in English.
Active learning helps students start speaking English confidently in less than a year.
Active learning is more than just listening: it involves the active participation of students. They must use the language all the time and be emotionally involved in the process.
We call for the conversion from Passive Learning to Active Training English Skills
As a language teacher, I use all kinds of tricks just because making students speak and building their self-confidence in keeping the conversation going is the most essential for me.
When I teach Polish, my foreigners and I have to speak only Polish, and also my English classes are run entirely in English. I train without a bridge language.
This signifies they are required to forget about native language and start speaking as well as intending in a foreign linguistic communication. Thinking in a foreign language, this is just what I want my learners to achieve.
My students learn the words in different contexts, mostly singing phrases, expressions, collocations, idiomatic expressions, phrasal verbs also telling tales. Moreover, I inspire them to talk to everybody, even to themselves in a foreign language. Consequently, they can communicate as well as discuss a variety of beautiful narrations.
Many teachers spend most of their time altering each other’s errors.
Nevertheless, I correct only fundamental errors, as I don’t want students to stop talking. I also encourage my learners to listen to songs, watch movies with subtitles in a language they learn, read a lot and so forth.
- The most important is to deliver comprehensible input. We improve the language when we understand it.
I am very much against the support in the native language.
- Learners spend more time dynamically speaking English when we convince them, for working students.
I also develop an environment for gaining all language skills – reading, listening, speaking, writing, and pronunciation at the same time. Learners experience everyday situations again entirely in English.
- The mobile is an obvious choice for delivering information. It affords pupils access to reading material both in the course of educational activity and after the class of a written report. It covers support for sharing sessions with friends or teachers, which is essential for digital learners.
The lessons added by a teacher allow building an active connection between everyone.
As a result, I as an English teacher achieve a perpetual change from passive learning to the active, improving English skills.
Thank you for reading and watching.
Wishing you all the best,
Halina Ostankowicz- Bazan
- Brookfield, S. (2000). Adult cognition as a dimension of lifelong learning. In J. Field &
- Cisero, C. A. (2006). Does reflective journal writing improve course performance? College Teaching, 54, 231-236.
- Developing Language Objectives for English Language Learners in Physical Education Lessons. Clancy, M. & Hruska, B. (2005).
- Dewey, J. (1933). How we think (Revised). Boston: D.C. Heath.
- Duckett, H. (2002). Smoke and mirrors? Evaluating the use of reflective practice as a management learning technique.” Education-line database, December 23.
- Effective Instruction for English-Language Learners. Protheroe, N. (2011).
- English Language Learners: A Policy Research Brief produced by the National Council of Teachers of English. NCTE. (2008).
- Instructional Models and Strategies for Teaching English Language Learners. Center on Instruction. Moughamian et al. (2009).
- Shulruf, B. (2011). Do extra-curricular activities in school improve educational outcomes? A critical review and meta-analysis of the literature. International Review of Education, (56),591-612.
To provide enhanced learning experiences, it is important to remember these points:
Communication must be regular and responsive to partners.
Technology tools need to be tested and trialed first before students become frustrated – in this summit it was made clear teachers had set up the technology and supported student use throughout
Collaboration means being able to ‘get on’ with others – so although there may be disagreements between cross-school teams, the goal is to problem solve and come to a mutual understanding – we all need these skills in today’s world!
Student-centred, inquiry-based learning is key to successful sharing and the better understanding of global partners here.
Quick announcement: I’ll be presenting, along with Susan Gay Hyatt, my Blue Planet co-director, at the 8th annual Global Education Conference, a worldwide online event for educators and others interested in the world of benefits that global education can provide to students.
Join us–for free!–on Wednesday, November 15 at 2pm EST to hear us answer the burning question:
What’s a Crankie??
We’ll be showcasing a Crankie project that Blue Planet carried out between a school in South Florida and one in Shanghai, China, and teaching you how you can create a similar project in your own classroom. The presentation will be great for
- Language arts teachers
- Fine arts teachers
- Social studies teachers
- World language teachers
- Teaching Artists
- Cultural Educators
Attendance, which is completely online, is free. Go to the Conference schedule page here for information on how to join us and the other presenters for this fantastic conference!